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I have addressed the expectation of service to the institution and wider community in the broad sense of collaborating with colleagues to respond to the challenges we face working in UMB and allied institutions. The strength of my contributions lies in taking initiative to identify challenges and in innovating so as to make effective use of limited resources. In this section I discuss four major challenges I have addressed. This should be read in conjunction with details presented in my Annual Faculty Reviews (AFRs) and recognition that below the radar screen of AFRs lie many day-to-day initiatives, such as designing a spreadsheet soon after I arrived that my department used to process its backlog of course evaluations.

III.A Building a Basis for Interdisciplinary Science and Environmental Education

The contribution of GCOE to Science Education is an important issue, not the least because of the shortfall in qualified science teachers in Massachusetts. During my first year at UMB I became acquainted with the range of funded centers and initiatives in Science Education in Massachusetts. It became clear that preliminary steps were needed before GCOE would be in a position to compete for funds with the more established programs. The steps that I have been involved in include: establishing a science track within the M.Ed. program; connecting with CAS departments around this track or an Master of Science in Teaching (MST) degree; a CCT certificate in "Science, Education and Society"; a summer "New Directions in Science Education" course (to recruit new students and address the need for secondary science education courses); preparation of GCOE's science education folio towards national accreditation; and a search for a secondary science education faculty member who could teach core courses and take a leadership role. I look forward to supporting the new appointee, Hannah Sevian, in the directions she takes to continue building Science Education at UMB.

Notwithstanding the other centers and initiatives in the state, there appeared to be a distinctive niche for contributing in the science-STS area. As Steve Fifield remarked in his evaluation of the summer practitioners' workshop I organized in 1999: "The standards movement has a tendency to be interpreted as a push toward 'the basics' (i.e., decontextualized facts and concepts), but it is important to make clear that the study of science in social context is a component of national reforms and most state standards" and to identify allies and support teachers in "their attempts to broaden the meaning of science education." As mentioned in the introduction, the idea that critical analysis of science can influence its practice and application is not well developed or supported institutionally, and so new collaborations, programs, and other activities--or new directions for existing programs--are needed. My work in interdisciplinary science and environmental studies has involved many collaborations across disciplinary, institutional, and national boundaries.

The most significant venue for me outside my formal appointments has been in the International Society for History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Biology (ISHPSSB). In its biennial summer meetings the ISHPSSB brings together scholars from diverse disciplines, including the life sciences and history, philosophy and social studies of science. I served on the Executive from 1993-99 as President-elect, President, and then past-President. My earlier contributions, however, on the program committee (1987-89) and as program organizer (1989-91), were equally significant. It was during this period that the society was being formalized, and I worked hard to ensure that institutionalization did not undermine the tradition of innovative, cross- disciplinary sessions and discussions. I have personally organized sets of sessions at almost all of the ISHPSSB meetings, many of which have led to special editions of journals and one book.[21]

My recent service outside UMB has focused on teacher and faculty professional development and new interdisciplinary programs. In addition to the Eisenhower Professional Development course for teachers described in sect. I.B.3, I established within ISHPSSB a Committee on Education with a website to link ISHPSSB members to current initiatives concerning the teaching of science in its social context. This summer I organized the first of what are planned to be regular pre-conference workshops. The "Changing Life" working group (Sp 99) was a local initiative in the same direction, and this has evolved into summer faculty development workshops (sect. I.B.3). I am now collaborating with Prof. Fifield from U. Delaware to co-organize a biology-in-society component in BioQuest's annual 9-day faculty development workshop in June 2002.

In November 1998 I served as a consultant on the plans for a new interdisciplinary environmental studies doctoral program at the National Autonomous University in Mexico (UNAM) and since then have been consulted or participated in several boundary-crossing initiatives. In recognition of my ability to make trans-disciplinary connections, I have been invited to give commentaries in areas ranging from methodology in studies of communication to the use of remore sensing techniques in geography.

III.B Ensuring a Viable CCT Program without the Other Full-time CCT faculty Member

After a number of years with only one full-time faculty member in CCT, my appointment promised to make possible a sharing of the burden of administration, recruitment, advising, and thesis/synthesis supervision as well as outreach and program development projects. Unfortunately, by the end of my first year at UMB the Program Director, Delores Gallo, had reduced her time on campus for health reasons and then began what has turned out to be an extended medical leave. By a concerted effort she had cleared the backlog of students needing only to complete their theses and synthesis projects, but she was behind in record-keeping and other administrative projects.

My response to the challenge of taking on the program directorship under these circumstances has involved--in addition to the routine duties of this position--three main strands (see table below). Each of these has required a considerable "up-front" investment in the hope of making recruitment, advising, and other administrative tasks (such as preparing for program reviews) less consuming of time and attention. "Less" is relative not absolute, however, given a number of features of CCT: the absence of a standard conduit for students into the Program; the diverse interests and concerns of those admitted; the intensive seminar/workshop/activity format of CCT courses; and the syn/thesis requirement for completing the Program. The success of these efforts may be seen in the 26 new students already admitted for fall 2001 (the target given CCT was 21-25 for the full year), all recruited in a period after the elimination of the course release for a Program Director. However, given the unsustainable workload and stress, I hope the day comes soon when the running of CCT can be shared between two core faculty members.

Goal                          Examples of measures I have undertaken or led                  

Enhanced advising & office    Advising -- Student handbook; Revived CCT website;           
procedures                    Publicity brochures; Regularized roster of course offerings;   
                              Handbook on synthesis projects; Guidelines re: incompletes     
                              and passage through program requirements; Exit                 
                              Administration -- Enhanced and updated         
                              program database; Office operations manual; Application        
                              review procedures & tracking system; Working bees to sort      
                              CCT materials in storage                                       

More "horizontal" exchanges   CCT in Practice (weekly presentations in F 00 and F 01 and     
and support within and        full-day open houses); bi-weekly email newsletter; CCT         
beyond the community of CCT   Community directory; Recruitment drives; Links through ASCD    
students & alums              Teaching Thinking network and other allied organizations;      
                              Orientation and Community gathering (F 01)                     

CCT faculty outside GCOE      Monthly meetings focusing on interests other than business     
and adjuncts engaged in       (spr. 99); Preparation of talking points and AQUAD plan        
development of the program    (99-00); Planning for outreach unit;23 CCT in the Workplace    
& creating a wider impact     courses (Sum 00-) and new certificate Options in conjunction   
                              with Continuing Education; Thinktank for community college     
                              teachers of critical thinking (F00-); Thinking for Change      
                              Fieldbook (Sum 01-)24; Preparation for initiative on           
                              diversity in CCT (Sp 01-)                                      

III.C Developing CCT in New Directions

Traditionally, CCT courses and workshops have covered "psychological studies of... critical and creative thought...; philosophical studies... in reasoning, argument, logical thinking, valuing, and judging; and work with cognitive structures and metacognitive techniques for stimulating creativity and critical thought." At the same time, social justice concerns have motivated the educational and social change work of many CCT students and faculty. This spirit has informed my efforts to develop a science-STS component to the math. and science concentration in CCT and associated outreach (sect. III.A). I have only been able to offer two science-STS seminars (sect. II.C), but plan to continue promoting this area of CCT, whose growth should benefit if the different proposals for an M. Ed. science track, MST, or combined environmental science/education degree go ahead.

Once I began directing the program I became aware of previous attempts to expand CCT in the area of critical and creative thinking in the workplace. Building on my own interest in reflective practice, I have organized a suite of three courses through Continuing Education that can be taken on their own or as part of a version of the CCT Certificate with the theme, "Dialogue and Collaboration in Organizational Change." These courses are proving popular and have led a number of students to apply to or transfer into CCT.

Another challenge for CCT has been to address the 1994-95 review committee's recommendation to present a higher profile, within the university and in the wider community, for what is distinctive about CCT's work. The AQUAD plan produced by the Program in spring 2000 laid out some steps that seemed possible despite the reduction of resources for the Program since the mid-90s review. Of these, I have been involved in: presentations for C.I.T.; arranging CCT in Practice sessions open to the public; the Thinktank for community college teachers of critical thinking (which received a UMB Public Service grant); promoting the new Graduate Certificates and associated non-credit workshops; and groundwork for a plan to increase the social diversity of CCT students and for CCT courses to address the issues of increasing diversity. In addition, students from CCT693 last spring developed proposals for CCT to support more internships and practical experiences giving students a chance to apply what they are learning in their courses. I look forward to collaborating with other CCT faculty members in such directions as we prepare for the next Program review scheduled for 2002-3.

III.D Clarifying and Strengthening CCT's Status in GCOE

I discussed with Dean Clark before accepting his offer of appointment how the status of CCT in GCOE needed clarification. GCOE had then only recently become CCT's home college and all but two of the CCT faculty still resided in the College of Arts and Sciences. The challenge was for GCOE to articulate a positive place in its educational mission for the kind of mid-career personal and professional development pursued by CCT Masters students and to address the particularities of CCT as an interdisciplinary, inter-college Program. Clear parameters were needed to allow CCT faculty to plan the best use of their experience and energies. For myself in particular, appropriate criteria and procedures for review of interdisciplinary CCT work needed to be agreed on.

These concerns motivated CCT faculty to prepare a series of requests and proposals in 1999-2000, to which, unfortunately, no explicit response was received. From my side, I sought increased collaboration between CCT and other GCOE programs by, for example, drawing others into the CCT in Practice sessions, participating in math. and science education initiatives, making connections among faculty members involved in action-research and research preparation courses, and hosting an orientation to CCT. Yet, as I learned after my 4th. year review, GCOE leaders still saw CCT as marginal or even outside their vision of the College. It was felt that CCT faculty needed to serve GCOE more directly. In response, I took on key GCOE tasks beyond the CCT Program and Department of Curriculum and Instruction (C&I; formerly S.O.C.I.). (In particular, I have been active in the Dean's Technology Task Force and I chair the Academic Affairs and Curriculum Committee, in which role I clarified and publicized procedures for course and program change proposals.) Nevertheless, after the last year of different proposals and shifting expectations (summarized in the section to follow), noone could claim that the status of CCT in GCOE is yet clear or strong.
[21] "Pictorial representation in biology" (1991); "Science studies" (1994-5); "Ecological visionaries" (1997); Changing Life (1997), "Natural Contradictions" (1998); "Philosophies of Ecological Science" (2000).
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